Given a corpus of texts, computes sentiment per document or sentence using the valence shifting augmented bag-of-words approach, based on the lexicons provided and a choice of aggregation across words.

  how = "proportional",
  tokens = NULL,
  do.sentence = FALSE,
  nCore = 1



either a sento_corpus object created with sento_corpus, a quanteda corpus object, a tm SimpleCorpus object, a tm VCorpus object, or a character vector. Only a sento_corpus object incorporates a date dimension. In case of a corpus object, the numeric columns from the docvars are considered as features over which sentiment will be computed. In case of a character vector, sentiment is only computed across lexicons.


a sento_lexicons object created using sento_lexicons.


a single character vector defining how to perform aggregation within documents or sentences. For available options, see get_hows()$words.


a list of tokenized documents, or if do.sentence = TRUE a list of lists of tokenized sentences. This allows to specify your own tokenization scheme. Can result from the quanteda's tokens function, the tokenizers package, or other. Make sure the tokens are constructed from (the texts from) the x argument, are unigrams, and preferably set to lowercase, otherwise, results may be spurious and errors could occur. By default set to NULL.


a logical to indicate whether the sentiment computation should be done on sentence-level rather than document-level. By default do.sentence = FALSE.


a positive numeric that will be passed on to the numThreads argument of the setThreadOptions function, to parallelize the sentiment computation across texts. A value of 1 (default) implies no parallelization. Parallelization may improve speed of the sentiment computation only for sufficiently large corpora.


If x is a sento_corpus object: a sentiment object, i.e., a data.table containing the sentiment scores data.table with an "id", a "date" and a "word_count" column, and all lexicon-feature sentiment scores columns. The tokenized sentences are not provided but can be obtained as stringi::stri_split_boundaries(texts, type = "sentence"). A sentiment object can be aggregated (into time series) with the aggregate.sentiment function.

If x is a quanteda corpus object: a sentiment scores data.table with an "id" and a "word_count" column, and all lexicon-feature sentiment scores columns.

If x is a tm SimpleCorpus object, a tm VCorpus object, or a character vector: a sentiment scores data.table with an auto-created "id" column, a "word_count" column, and all lexicon sentiment scores columns.

When do.sentence = TRUE, an additional "sentence_id" column along the "id" column is added.


For a separate calculation of positive (resp. negative) sentiment, provide distinct positive (resp. negative) lexicons (see the do.split option in the sento_lexicons function). All NAs are converted to 0, under the assumption that this is equivalent to no sentiment. Per default tokens = NULL, meaning the corpus is internally tokenized as unigrams, with punctuation and numbers but not stopwords removed. All tokens are converted to lowercase, in line with what the sento_lexicons function does for the lexicons and valence shifters. Word counts are based on that same tokenization.


If the lexicons argument has no "valence" element, the sentiment computed corresponds to simple unigram matching with the lexicons [unigrams approach]. If valence shifters are included in lexicons with a corresponding "y" column, the polarity of a word detected from a lexicon gets multiplied with the associated value of a valence shifter if it appears right before the detected word (examples: not good or can't defend) [bigrams approach]. If the valence table contains a "t" column, valence shifters are searched for in a cluster centered around a detected polarity word [clusters approach]. The latter approach is a simplified version of the one utilized by the sentimentr package. A cluster amounts to four words before and two words after a polarity word. A cluster never overlaps with a preceding one. Roughly speaking, the polarity of a cluster is calculated as \(n(1 + 0.80d)S + \sum s\). The polarity score of the detected word is \(S\), \(s\) represents polarities of eventual other sentiment words, and \(d\) is the difference between the number of amplifiers (t = 2) and the number of deamplifiers (t = 3). If there is an odd number of negators (t = 1), \(n = -1\) and amplifiers are counted as deamplifiers, else \(n = 1\).

The sentence-level sentiment calculation approaches each sentence as if it is a document. Depending on the input either the unigrams, bigrams or clusters approach is used. We enhanced latter approach following more closely the default sentimentr settings. They use a cluster of five words before and two words after a polarized word. The cluster is limited to the words after a previous comma and before a next comma. Adversative conjunctions (t = 4) are accounted for here. The cluster is reweighted based on the value \(1 + 0.25adv\), where \(adv\) is the difference between the number of adversative conjunctions found before and after the polarized word.


data("usnews", package = "sentometrics") txt <- system.file("texts", "txt", package = "tm") reuters <- system.file("texts", "crude", package = "tm") data("list_lexicons", package = "sentometrics") data("list_valence_shifters", package = "sentometrics") l1 <- sento_lexicons(list_lexicons[c("LM_en", "HENRY_en")]) l2 <- sento_lexicons(list_lexicons[c("LM_en", "HENRY_en")], list_valence_shifters[["en"]]) l3 <- sento_lexicons(list_lexicons[c("LM_en", "HENRY_en")], list_valence_shifters[["en"]][, c("x", "t")]) # from a sento_corpus object - unigrams approach corpus <- sento_corpus(corpusdf = usnews) corpusSample <- quanteda::corpus_sample(corpus, size = 200) sent1 <- compute_sentiment(corpusSample, l1, how = "proportionalPol") # from a character vector - bigrams approach sent2 <- compute_sentiment(usnews[["texts"]][1:200], l2, how = "counts") # from a corpus object - clusters approach corpusQ <- quanteda::corpus(usnews, text_field = "texts") corpusQSample <- quanteda::corpus_sample(corpusQ, size = 200) sent3 <- compute_sentiment(corpusQSample, l3, how = "counts") # from an already tokenized corpus - using the 'tokens' argument toks <- as.list(quanteda::tokens(corpusQSample, what = "fastestword")) sent4 <- compute_sentiment(corpusQSample, l1[1], how = "counts", tokens = toks) # from a SimpleCorpus object - unigrams approach scorp <- tm::SimpleCorpus(tm::DirSource(txt)) sent5 <- compute_sentiment(scorp, l1, how = "proportional") # from a VCorpus object - unigrams approach ## in contrast to what as.sento_corpus(vcorp) would do, the ## sentiment calculator handles multiple character vectors within ## a single corpus element as separate documents vcorp <- tm::VCorpus(tm::DirSource(reuters)) sent6 <- compute_sentiment(vcorp, l1) # from a sento_corpus object - unigrams approach with tf-idf weighting sent7 <- compute_sentiment(corpusSample, l1, how = "TFIDF") # sentence-by-sentence computation sent8 <- compute_sentiment(corpusSample, l1, how = "proportionalSquareRoot", do.sentence = TRUE) # from a (fake) multilingual corpus usnews[["language"]] <- "en" # add language column usnews$language[1:100] <- "fr" lEn <- sento_lexicons(list("FEEL_en" = list_lexicons$FEEL_en_tr, "HENRY" = list_lexicons$HENRY_en), list_valence_shifters$en) lFr <- sento_lexicons(list("FEEL_fr" = list_lexicons$FEEL_fr), list_valence_shifters$fr) lexicons <- list(en = lEn, fr = lFr) corpusLang <- sento_corpus(corpusdf = usnews[1:250, ]) sent9 <- compute_sentiment(corpusLang, lexicons, how = "proportional")